Prior to the 19th century, Turkmenia was divided into two lands, one belonging to the khanate of Khiva and the other belonging to the khanate of Bukhara.
In 1868, the khanate of Khiva was made part of the Russian Empire and Turkmenia became known as the Transcaspia Region of Russian Turkistan. 1990 and became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States on Dec.
About nine-tenths of Turkmenistan is desert, chiefly the Kara-Kum.
While the ancient history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history.
Early tribes were nomadic or semi-nomadic due to the arid conditions of the region as the steppe culture in Central Asia was an extension of a larger Eurasian series of horse cultures which spanned the entire spectrum of language families including the Indo-Europeans and Turko-Mongol groups.
Already there was a tradition, on the eve of a holiday to award outstanding citizens of Turkmenistan — cultural figures, art, sports, policy.
Quite often "festive amnesties" to the people who once have violated the law (generally on unintentional and to not serious crimes, and also women and minors appear condemned).